What are the concepts every Java programmer must know

By NIIT Editorial

Published on 20/11/2020

6 minutes

Java is amongst the most widely used programming language in the world. The salient feature of this language is the OOPs concepts that it is built upon. The language is well known for its versatility, ease of use, and accessibility.

Developers prefer Java all over the world for building complex programs, as its object-oriented approach makes it easier to use. As a result, it is ever in demand in the IT industry. Hence, it is necessary to study OOPs concepts and the basics of the Java language as it paves way for a better understanding of language and its use.

We tell you more about the basic concepts of Java and OOPs below-

What is the OOPs concept in Java?

The OOPs concept is a methodology in which a program is designed using classes and objects. This data is stored in objects and classes, which simplifies the programming. This is why Java is known as an object-oriented programming language.

OOPs concepts in Java work on the principles of encapsulation, abstraction, inheritance, and polymorphism. The language allows you to create new objects, assign methods, reuse the objects, and manipulate them anywhere in the program. You can use a combination of the concepts to develop your program. Read on to know the key concepts that makeup OOPs in Java programming.

List of OOPs concepts in Java

The following are some fundamental concepts of OOPs in Java that you must be aware of:

  1. Object: An object is the basic building block in Java. Objects are like real things such as a chair, pen, table, and book. An object can contain data and functions. Objects can fulfill many requirements and work on responses returned by them.   
  2. Class: Objects when defined collectively are called a class. You can place as many objects as you want in a class. A class does not take up space.
  3. Inheritance: Inheritance reduces the efforts and provides code reusability. It provides a parent-child relationship between the classes. The child class can inherit the properties and behavior of the parent class, hence the name.
  4. Encapsulation: Encapsulation is similar to its literal meaning that is wrapping something in a unit. In Java, when data and code are wrapped together into a single unit, it is called encapsulation. In this OOPs concept, class variables are always hidden from each other.  
  5. Abstraction: Abstraction is hiding the actual process behind a program. Abstract class and interface are used in Java to provide abstraction in a program. It is widely used for creating a new data type that is suited for a specific application.
  6. Polymorphism: This is the ability of an object or a function to take on multiple forms. It can be achieved in Java by using the method of overloading and overriding. The basic concept is to do a task in several ways.
  7. Coupling: In a Java program when classes have information about each other and have a dependency on them, it is called coupling. The coupling can be used in Java by private, public, or protected modifiers to enable coupling for efficient working.

Now that you understand the OOPs concept in Java, we move onto the advantages of OOPs that make them stand out.

Advantages of OOPs in Java

OOPs features in Java are amongst the best and most favoured among programmers. The reason behind it is the many advantages it offers over other programming languages. Some significant ones include-

  • OOPs offers independent objects which allow easy accessibility and enhances the program modularity.
  • Objects created by object-oriented-programs concepts used in one program can be reused in other programs. This reduces cost and time.
  • The difficulty encountered by programmers in writing big programs can be overcome using OOPs concepts as it needs fewer efforts and is comparatively more efficient.
  • If the design and development team both use the OOPs concept, the design will be better and the chances of flaws will be significantly lesser.

Owing to all these advantages, Java is a must-have skill to gain before you enter the IT world. A better grasp of the basic concepts of the Java language can help you understand the coding better and make your everyday work as a programmer, developer, or tester easier. Also, it can also help you grow quickly in your career. Hence, experts advise on learning the basics of Java programming.

To make you better suited for the job, NIIT offers curated programs catered to meet the needs of different people. You can opt for a Programming in Java course to learn the basics of the programming language and the OOPs concepts. If a professional course is what you are looking for, you can opt for the ‘Post Graduate Programme in Full Stack Java Programming’.

Such a course can answer all your questions- right from ‘What are the basic concepts of Java’ to ‘What is core Java’ to ‘How to program in Java’. The classes are exhaustive and are taught by industry veterans. The certificate awarded is accepted by IT companies as proof of your skills in Java. Reach out to our customer representative or visit your nearest NIIT branch for more information on the courses.

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